Electro-Ceramic Energy Storage

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Ceramic Energy Storage

Ceramic Energy Storage uses ordinary bricks heated by electric coils . 

like traditional stoves popular in northern countries. 

This storage has been used for centuries because it is so efficient.  

Heavy industry uses it now to balance energy cycles.

Heavy industry uses high temperature Cowper regenerators to achieve:

* heat cycling rates up to 300 MW

* hourly cycling

* near-continuous operation

* 20-30 year lifetime

Regenerators are cheap and can be adapted to create GWh scale storage right now.

Renewable electricity is fed into a brickwork furnace via electrodes. Energy is stored until it is needed (3-96 hours).

To extract energy, hot air, gas or steam is blown through the brickwork, then piped into a steam turbine combustor via a recuperator.

This schematic shows an example of the last part of the cycle.

sketch

Batteries  store electricity as charge, then  discharge it.  Super simple.  Calix has chosen a different path,  storing electricity as heat, and turning it into steam to drive a steam turbine. An apparently more complex system that is likely to be less efficient. 

 

But steam turbines are already an key part of the power generation loop.  All power stations employ steam turbines to actually create electricity.  By using this system there’s little efficiency drop.

 

The key takeaway is that rather than being less efficient, this form of energy storage can be nearly as efficient as battery storage.  We are aiming to achieve energy recovery near 60% in the short term, and closer to 80% in the medium term. 

Calix’s key technology innovation relates to the transfer of heat  into steam turbines.   We use a closed loop inert gas system and transfer energy to the turbine by interfacing directly into the compression chamber. 

Typically this will require modifications to existing combined cycle gas turbine plants.  New builds will be built with the modifications installed. 

Our R&D program includes Computational Fluid Dynamic simulations which will produce data on  aspects of the closed loop, energy flow and insulation design.

Technical R&D issues relate to the ultimate degree of thermal efficiency the system can produce.

Li-Ion is not a realistic competitor.  Salt is.  Battery maker CATL is now selling a Sodium-Ion battery for the transport market .

Salt is cheap and abundant so can in theory compete directly with ceramics. 

If CATL decides on a research program using Sodium-Ion, the R&D  ramp might be in the 4-5 year range.  The main hold up will be supply chain issues (10 year horizon?).

If ceramics reach 60% efficiency they will still be the obvious choice for GW power plants.

Prototype Development Timeline

Q1 2022

Q2 2022

Q3 2022

Q4 2022

Sketch of Nova One Demonstrator

Six hexagonal brickworks heated by electrodes

Air gas or steam is blown through passages and fed into a central steam turbine for conversion into electricity

800-1500c working temperature 

500KWh+ energy density per cubic meter

25MWh+ capacity

Suitable for Wind and Solar up to 4GWh

Potential for a 6 hour discharge cycle

prototype

Schematic of Brickwork with Fluid Shafts

Schematic of Brickwork with Fluid Shaftsork with Fluid Shafts

Key Advantages

There are many benefits of ceramic energy storage and reasons to invest in the development of our technology including:

Extraordinary Price

The charms of pleasure of the moment, so blinded by desire, that they cannot foresee the and trouble..

Speed of Deployment

Possible 18 month timetable to grid connected 25 MWh industry scale prototype demonstrator.

Performance Potential

The charms of pleasure of the moment, so blinded by desire, that they cannot foresee the and trouble..

Efficiency Rates

Currently at 40-45%, our research shows promises that this figure can rapidly rise to 60% and higher.

Global Appliction

The charms of pleasure of the moment, so blinded by desire, that they cannot foresee the and trouble..

Easy to Finance

Low cost and multi GigaWatt scale makes tech attractive to deploy and easy to finance.

Compared to Lithium-Ion